p 970.1 INDIANS AT • WORK September i , 1934 A NEWS SHEET FOR. INDIANS AND THE INDIAN SERVICE OFFICE • OF- INDIAN - AFFAIR S WASHINGTON, B.C. Collection of Native North American Indian Books, Historical Books, Atlases, plus other important au- thors and family heirloom books. As of 12-31-93 Earl Ford McNaughton INDIANS AT WORK CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OF SEPTEMBER 1, 1934 Volume II Number 2 Page EDITORIAL 1 Secretary Ickes 1 Letter on Indian School Discipline 5 Commissioner Collier's Letter on Indian School Discipline ... 6 Commissioner Collier's Letter to the Klamath Business Committee Relating to Corruot Practices V The National Resources Board and the Indian Service 9 Indian Justice and Opportunity ... .By David Parsons, Choctaw . . 11 A Historical Experiment in Indian Self -Government 12 The Wisdom of a Former President. 18 Indian School Murals "by an Indian Artist 21 News from the Anthropology Course at Santa Fe 24 Extension of the Navajo Reservation 26 Comment from the Pield on Circular Letter Number 3011 28 Indian Naturalist 30 An Irrigation Project Exclusively for Indians By A. L. Wathen 31 Superficial Notes on Some IECW Projects and Indians at Work by the Editor 36 From IECW Weekly Reports 43 Fire Fighting Indians 46 i r 80323 This is an epoch-making year for the Indians of the United States. They are approaching their 'place in the sun' . Their right to continued racial existence has "been officially recognize and defined "by statute. Important continuing appropriations have "been authorized for their rehabilitation . ITroni their historic status as a subjugated people they have passed into that of in- tegrated self- determining units of a democratic commonwealth, at last permitted, nay, encouraged, to make their contribution to .American culture by developing along the lines marked oxxt by their own racial heritage. That expectation of a place in the sun has been the Indians' for more than a year. Special consideration was given their needs in the allocation of funds from the various relief projects; invariably these funds were used for the improvement of the Indians' remaining land, adding to its productiveness. Prom some of the tribes surplus stock, beyond the sustaining capacity of the reservations, has been bought; for others more 89323 than half a million dollars -is now "being spent for high-grade cattle with which to restock the reservations. Five subsistence- homestead colonies for various hands are under consideration. Out of the submarginal-land purchase funds large sums have been earmarked for Indian reservations, old and new. This new national interest in Indian affairs goes even farther. Many of the departments of the Federal and State govern- ments, not directly interested in Indians, are cooperating whole- heartedly with the Indian Service, planning with us, making avail- able to the Indians the knowledge and experience of their experts. The national Resources Board, charged by the President with the duty of preparing a long-term, comprehensive plan for the better use of the country's land, water, mineral and other reco^rces, lias authorized the Indian Service to make a special study of Indian acquisition and land use. Since the recommendations resulting from this stud/ will probably be used as the basis for appropriate legislation by the next Congress, it is important that the person- nel of the Indian Service cooperate without limit in supplying facts for this study. The recommendations which the national He- sources Board will make to the president concerning land acquisi- tion for the Indians will probably determine the economic status of the Indians for the next fifty years. This national good will, this readiness to open purses, hearts and brains to the Indian cause, place a heavy load of 2 89323 responsibility on the personnel of the Indian Service and on the Indians themselves. Is every one of these interested people shoulder- ing this responsibility? Is every single one conscious of the fact that the New Deal for the Indians requires readjustment, changes in viewpoint and perspective, an appraisal of old habits and values and a sincere acceptance of the new orientation? We know that the great majority of the personnel is so conscious. But there is a minority of grave exceptions. To illustrate} Seven teachers have recently been suspended, charged with inflicting corporal or humiliating punishment on Indian children, in violation of an order more than four years old. Are other teachers, in various parts of the country, also guilty? To illustrate further: Three members of a tribal council have been recalled and debarred from office because, while holding official positions of trust and leadership, they accepted pay from a lumber company asking for price and other concessions on timber- purchase contracts it had with the tribe. Are other Indian leaders corrupt? Corporal punishment was accepted as a more or less common- place mode of discipline for a long time; betrayal of Indian tribes by some of their own leaders was practiced during many decades under indifferent administrations. Brutality of Government officials toward their Indian wards has existed; it went hand in hand with the other practice of bribing Indian leaders. These practices of the past must remain in the past. At 3 89323 this, the ■burning point in the history of the Indian race, there must be enthusiastic, -unselfish, efficient cooperation in the work of re- construction. The personnel of the Service, its Indian members in- cluded, must not only continue to give best efforts without stint, but must assist actively in the elimination of the small minority, white or Indian, which will not, or cannot, carry its fair share of the burden. And the Indians, especially the Indian leaders, must remember that an increasingly heavy load of responsibility will be placed on their shoulders, that they must discharge that respon- sibility faithfully, efficiently, without fear or favor, if the pro- mise of the dawn is to be followed by the full sunlight of the New Day for the Indian. JOHN COLLIER Commissioner Of Indian Af fa i r s 4 89323. SECRETARY ICJQ3S' LETTER ON INDIAN SCHOOL DISCIPLINE August 16, 1934 To Superintendents, Principals And Teachers In The Indian Service: Conuni ssi oner Collier has called ray attention to a number of incidents which indicate that mediaeval forms of discipline have not yet been done away with in some of the Indian schools. Four years ago, corporal punishment in the Indian schools was forbidden by regulation. Since three years ago, at Superintend- ents' conferences and otherwise, that order has been reinforced through explanation and insistence, and it has been made clear that punishments designed publicly to humiliate the Indian child- ren were even more intolerable than private beatings. The evi- dence supplied me by Commissioner Collier shows that these pol- icies and regulations have been flaunted in certain institutions. Anong the cares, all of them recent, which have been brought to my attention, there are instances of beatings by teachers; of Indian children compelled to kneel for many hours on concrete floors; of others required to stand for a quarter of a day immov- able with their eyes fixed on a dead wall. Commissioner Collier has filed charges against five of the offenders, and I am on this date suspending these, along with an additional two, all of whom will be dismissed from the service unless mitigating circumstances can be brought forward by them. In addition, I am requesting fuller information with regard to a number of other cases. The school forces of the Indian Service must understand that corporal punishment, and stupid, humiliating punishments of boys and girls, will not be tolerated. It is evident that super- intendents and principals have not in all ca.-es impressed this fact on their subordinates. I realise that you who are intrusted with the responsibility of educating young people have a diffi- cult task, a?ld that you can perform it well only with the honest good Will and intelligent cooperation of the Indian boys and girls themselves, their parents, and your coworkers. I want you to know that we in the Washington Office are behind you in every enlightened and sympathetic effort you make, just as we are < 5 89323 against everything that is stupid and. cruel. We expect coopera- tion from the young people with whom and for whom you work. A school and its disciplines are the joint responsibility of the students and the teachers. HAROLD L. 1CKES Secretary of the Interior COMMISSIONER CO LLIER'S LETTER ON INDIAN SCHOOL DISCIPLINE August 22, 1934 To All Field Supervisor.-, of Education: Your attention is called to the communiciati on signed "by Secre- tary of the Interior, Mr. I ekes, enclosed herewith. Of the seven cases of corporal punishment and of humiliating punishments therein referred to, all except one were reported by one supervisor from a single area of the Indian country. It is highly unlikely that abuses of this character exist in one area and are absent from all other areas. Your attention is directed to this subject with considerable earnestness. You tire requested to observe closely and to report fully and explicitly any abuses of this character which you find. If you hear of such abuses but do not see them, you are instructed to investigate, obtain the fa.cts and report them. I am fully aware that the essentia.l problem of discipline in the schools is one of happy and cooperative morale among the stud- ent body and good human nature in the teaching staff, of healthy outlets to the energies of the children, and of skill in directing behavior into useful channels. Tha.t is the upbuilding task. Lut it is, or should be self-evident that so long as physical force, and acts of humiliation directed against the children, are used, no healthy or happy morale will be possible, nor will it be easy for the creative work of modern-minded teachers to establish the better standards which we are aiming at. The supervisory forces of the Indian Service will be held responsible for reporting abuses in the matter of discipline just as the teacher or disciplinarian guilty of the abuses will be held responsible for committing them. (Signed) JOHN COLLIER, Commissioner. 6 89323 COMMISSIONER COLLIER'S LETTER TO TEE KLAMATH BUSINESS COMMITTEE RE- LATING: TO CORRUPT PRACTICES August 23, 1934 Mr. Jesse Lee Kirk, Chairman, Business Committee of the Klamath, Modoc and Yahoo skin Band of Snake Indians, c/o Klamath Indian Agency Elamath Agency, Oregon Dear Sir: On May 25, 1934, the Business Committee of the Klamath, Mo dec and Yahoo skin Band of Snake Indians, passed a resolution to appoint two of its members and . , "to assist the allottees to he properly informed as to the signing of their allottees' contracts and to act as impartial referees." The issue at stake lay between two forms of contract, of which one form was more advantageous to various lumber companies, while the other form was considered by the Department to be more advantageous to the Indian allottees. Thereafter, accepted from the interested lum- ber companies payment in the amount of 3207*00, and accepted from the interested lumber companies payment in the amount of $543.00 to explain to the allottees the advantages of the lumber- man's form of contract. In addition, , a member of the Business Committee, accepted from the interested companies a loan of $500.00 and cash in the amount of an additional $335»00« Thereupon, these officials severally proceeded to advise the allottees, and with greater or less success they procured signa- tures to the form of contract desired by the lumber companies. Such action by the three members of the Business Committee is intolerable from any standpoint of political morality and of the standards of conduct which rust be required of the men who serve on the Business Committees handling the affairs of Indian tribes. Were the action that of members of the council of an 7 89323 incorporated city, or of a State or Federal legislative "body, it "unquestionably would be an indictable offense and would in addi- tion result in the political extermination of the culprits. Article 17 of the constitution of the Klamath, Modoc and Yahoo skin Bank of Snake Indians reads as follows: "Any officer or member of the commi t tee shall be subject to recall from office and membership for reasonable cause, under proper investigation, by the committee or by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs." Pursuant to the above-quoted article, I hereby recall from office the three members of the Business Committee guilty of the acts above described, and direct that an election shall be called with secret ballot, at which the enrolled members of the Tribe may choose successors to these three men, subject to the final approval of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. It is needless to state that I would under no circumstance approve any of the three men hereby recalled. This incident is profoundly distressing to me, as to the Secretary of the Interior. It unjustly reflects discredit on the tribal councils of all Indian tribes, as well as upon the guilt- less members of the Klamath Business Committee, and those per- sons who do not believe in the Indian capacity for self-govern- ment vail quote it to the hurt of the Klamath Tribe and of all tribes. I am furnishing a copy of this letter to the three members of the Business Committee mentioned herein, and am directing Superintendent Crawford to post it at the Agency. Very truly yours, (Signed) J OHM COLLIER Commissi oner Approved: August 24, 1934 (Signed) HAROLD L. ICKES Secretary of the Interior 8 89323 TEE NATIONAL REoOtERCES 30ARE AMD THE D1DIAK SERVICE The National Resources Board has "been created "by the president to survey the potential resources of the country and to make recommen- dations for some plan of use which -will be most conducive to the welfare of the American people. Some eleven different bureaus, offices and administrations are collaborating on the land section, of the report and one of these of cour.se is the Office of Indian Affairs. The fundamental point we are trying to determine for the Indian land is whether, taking it reservation by reservation, we have enough land to support the Indians on a reasonable standard of living. We are considering first on each reservation how we may produce the maximum possible productive capacity. This will involve among other things land consolidation, additional education and credit to make capital investment in live- stock, sawmills, and so forth. We are going to determine with these changes how much value the Indians on a reservation might derive in subsistence and cash from the use and development of all their varied resources. We will con- sider separately the possible income from agriculture, grazing, timber development, mining, oil, water power development, fishing, hunting, trapping, harvesting of native plants and berries, handcrafts and work around the agencies. Then we will estimate how much it would cost in subsistence and cash for all the Indians on a reservation to at- 3 89323 tain a reasonable standard of living. If the value of income producing pos sibilities on a given reservation is greater than the value of the subsistence and cash required for a reasonable living, then we will know that the reservation, with its present resources, is capable of supporting it's population. If the reverse is true, then we will know that the reservation cannot support its population snd in that case we will have to acquire additional land. The Indian Office part of the study to be made by the Board has been placed under the direction of Mr. Robert Marshall, Chief of Forestry. A staff has been appointed and plans are being worked out. The President has asked that a report be given him by December 1. 10 89323 IitDTAN JUSTICE MD OPPORTUNITY By David Parsons, Choctaw So much has "been written and spoken, for and against the Wheeler- Howard Bill by the best and most astute minds, both as political and social observers, that the writer hesitates to comment, almost inclined to present the racial and traditional "silent and cold" exterior. The Germ of Growth On June eighteenth, 1934, the much discussed Indian social and e- conomic reform bill became a law. Section Sixteen, relative to local self-government, is especially typical of the optimism and humani- tarian sense of social .justice Which the present Indian Commission- er has expressed "before and since his appointment as director of In- dian Affairs. This change in Indian policy is indeed evidence of a human comprehension of Indian justice and psychology as yet not common. The new policy recognizes the Indian as a social human being with great la- tent potentialities; not as an ever- present, incompetent, docile -,vard. The local home- rule feature is an ex- cellent concession to the steady modern tendency of expansion in gov- ernmental aid to the people, which admits of wide variation in its ap- plication to practical reforms of the Indian social order. The homo- rule feature alone should obtain for the Wheeler-Howard Bill a fair trial and, if helpful, a permanent governmental program. Innovation for the sake of change alone is not to be commended but it is equally as foolish to oppose all attempts at im- provement. It is probably not known at this early date just to what ex- tent the Secretary of the Interior plans to experiment with this section of the bill. It is not expected or desirable that the program or the Indians will endeavor to go so far with the experiment of self-rule as to raise anew the question of a state within a state as in the fa- mous old case of Worcester v. Georgia. The aim is only to set up domestic, self-controlling, supervised groups; a theory that was so a.bly explained, more than a Century ago by Chief Justice Marshall in another famous case, Cherokee v. Georgia. This new lo- cal self-control policy will doubt- less extend as far as necessity may req-oire, and ability permits. 11 The possibilities Thus far, the Wheeler-Howard Bill truly represents the Indian Commissioner's firm conviction that the Indians have vast dormant abil- ities; that these abilities need only to be aroused, encouraged and directed to develop the Indians in- to a self-reliant i self-sustaining and a self-sufficient people. The bill is no longer a theory or con- viction. It is a law. Soon it will be time for the Indians to act, to devise various local plans and endeavor to put them into success- ful operation. 3oth the Commission- er and the Indians are on trial. It is up to the Commissioner to transform the new bill into a practical social opportunity. Then it is up to the Indians to exert themselves to make it a social re- ality. Sociologically speaking, Section Sixteen may be said to be atavistic, for it is a reversion A HISTORICAL EXPERIMENT IN After a careful study of a past Indian experiment in self-gov- ernment it is not too much to affirm that the opinions of a great many critics on the benefits to be derived from this so-called Collier experi- ment are mostly idle speculation based upon personal estimations, ig- norance or prejudice, and are not therefore necessarily correct de- cisions. Generally when Indian his- tory is referred to the only thought is of war i or a benevolent troaty- The Pounding Of Thirty-seven years after the 89323 Within The Bill of policy to a former time when the Indians had to do with their local problems in their own way. It is in this respect, reversion of pol- icy, that the bill provides one of the greatest opportunities, an op- portunity for individual growth and personal development, a return to conscious self-respect. Too much Governmental aid and misdirect- ed supervision has already produced an unhealthy Indian reliance on the Government. This human tendency is not confined to the Indian race, for ancient and modern history are replete with forceful examples of this governmental error. In the future, according to Section Six- teen, the Indians to which it shall apply shall have an opportunity partially to regulate and control their immediate needs with the aid of modern methods and science. INDIAN SELF- GOVERNMENT making council. It is, therefore, with a great deal of pride and ad- miration that the writer shall briefly review an historical exper- iment in Indian self-government be- yond the customary nomadic tribal council form, that the achievements herein mentioned may afford some light and much inspiration for those Indians about to embark upon a somewhat similar experience, par- tial self-control. rational Government United States Government adopted a 12 89323 federal constitution, the Choctaw tribe of Indians also adopted a na- tional constitution. This was more than a hundred years ago - "before the ravages wrought by the Trail of Tears. On August fifth, 1826, a general council of chiefs and war- riors in their ancient Mississippi home adopted their first written constitution, defining local self- control. This obscure political document was signed by Topanohuma, David Pulsom and Greenwood Leflore, as the district chiefs representing the three districts of the then Choctaw Nation. The deliberations of that august body further pro- vided the sun of $450.00 to erect a general council house, that the laudable experiment in the white man's system of democratic self-con- trol might have the dignity of a permanent meeting place. This was After It was not in the State of Mis- sissippi, however, that the Choc taws were destined to erect a super- structure upon this newly conceived democratic system. Within six years most of the Choctaws and their new ideal had been trans- planted to what is now Oklahoma, then Indian Territory. Here, they were to be free, according to the removal treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, to continue as a nation. It was indeed 'a happy moment when they gazed upon that sacred and histor- ical document, the original patent, a token and further evidence of Choctaw ownership in fee-simple of the new territory. This document was executed in 1842, by President Tyler and Secretary of War, Daniel Webster. Even today all land titles the beginning of a political and so- cial experiment in parliamentary procedure by a racial group hereto- fore not addicted to a formal polit- ical system. During the eighty years of their political independ- ence, the Choctaws changed the or- ganic law of their nation five times and adopted, five different written constitutions. On four dif- ferent occasions after removal, they were to test their skill in framing and adopting organic constitutional democratic theory. ' These historic achievements were accomplished in the years 1834, 1850, 1857, and 1860. These constitutions clearly defined personal and political rights. The frequency of these constitutional changes represents the Choctaws' flexibility, growth and desire for improvement. The Rem oval in this region begin with this his- torical document. In this new coun- try the Choctaws had freedom of thought, initiative and action. So it was west of the Mississippi River that a great Indian experiment was to complete the cycle of growth and then wither. Upon arrival in Indian Terri- tory, their new home, the Choctaws set about to reorganize their gov- ernment, and established what well de serves to be known in history as The Choctaw Republic . These Indians were an autonomous people with the United States Government in the pa- ternal background. The protectorate relationship between the United States and the Choctaw Nation was somewhat similar to the American- 13 89323 Cuban governmental relationship known and defined in American his- tory and diplomacy as the Piatt A- mendment. This bicameral republic was to live for about seventy- two years, and how well it served the needs of its people need not be in- ferred from its tragic death. Im- perialism or economic penetration and extraterritoriality - lack of jurisdiction over a non-citizen el- ement which exceeded both in num- bers and criminality - made justice and order an insurmountable goal and hastened the demise of a re- wblic that might otherwise have been a lasting success. Like the English colonist com- ing to America, the Ghoctaws trans- planted to their new home much in the way of place names that they had known and revered in the old home They divided the country into three districts and gave them the names they had had in Mississippi, Apuk shunubb e e . Moo shul a tuob e e and Pushma taha , to perpetuate the mem- ory of three former chiefs. These districts were further divided into counties. Their first capital was also a Mississippi name, ITanih Wayah . The Educ ational System These Indians erected and fos- tered an excellent national school system under a national board of ed- ucation consisting of three members. Soon after their arrival they estab- lished day schools, boarding schools, Sabbath schools and acad- emies. Each year outstanding grad- uates of the academies were sent to the States at the expense of the Choctaw Nation for higher training. The Indian students used grammars, definers, spellers, readers, Ho?.y Writ and hymn books in the native language. Newspapers appeared throughout the nation printed in the Choctaw language. Besides the traditional three R's, agriculture, domestic science, vocational train- ing, language, psychology, history, geometry and trigonometry were of- fered and instructors were supposed to be proficient in three foreign language s . The Judicia l System The judicial system of the Choctaw government consisted of a County, District and Supreme Court in which justice was swift and de signed to exert a strong re- straining power. Their system of justice did not provide for jail sentence or confinement. Fines, whippings and death by shooting were the extent of their penal code. The frequent appearance of the nu- meral thirty-nine in the Choctaw codes as regards the number of lashes to be "well laid on the bare back" may cause a reader to wonder why this odd exact quantity of jus- tice. In sum and substance, this penal code and the administration of justice was simple and may have been at times a bit informal, and perhaps we might say semi -barbaric . Unfavorable allusions like this 14 89323 might have a recial sting were it not for the almost free play of intellectual "bar "bar ism transpiring in the old. centers of European The Genera l It is from the House Journal and Senate Records written in long .hand, sometimes interspersed with Choctaw, that we may note many col- loquial expressions and peculiar- ities foreign to the ordinary science of government. The opening of the Choctaw General Council or national legislative body was us- ually a gala affair. Great crowds thronged the halls and chambers. Neighboring tribes occasionally sent diplomatic visitors with the usual olive branch, smoking tobaccn, instructed to cement the bonds of friendship and peace. At the con- vening of the council a chief might be inducted into office. Speeches, debates and important legislation were the things of public as well as official interest. If a quorum or majority was not present as did sometimes happen at a called ses- sion, they adjourned and proceeded to compel attendance as follows: A lighthorseman, an officer, was de- tailed to bring a certain member to the Council. Days later the light- horseman would return by horseback with the member. Doubtless this coercion vividly impressed upon the Councilman's mind that politics was an important matter and that he must in the future answer the call. However, when the House and Senate were organized and ready for business they would signify the .same by motion that u committee no.- 'tify the Chief that they were ready culture at this particular moment. This also refreshes the mooted question: !7ho is the savage or barbarian? Council to receive any communication he might desire to lay before them. The Chief would then notify both Houses as to the hour at which he would meet them in joint session and deliver his inaugural address or lay his views before them on matters of concern to the Council or nation. Both Bouses also met together for the purpose of debrte or to- determine the election of a chief. The votes for Miko Chi to or Chief were counted by Justices of the Supreme Court and a committee was appointed to inform the successful candidate and request his appearance. Legislative dis- cussions or debates were never writ- ten into the records. The Houses were small in number and most of the members were on some committee. In order that the committees might work, the Houses adjourned or some- times recessed until a later date. The opening parliamentary form used by the council was: roll call, quorum, prayer, reading of the journal of the previous day, inter- pretation and adoption. Before each adjournment they selected the hour of meeting for the next day, which was the "unusual hour of seven or eight in the morning. The House Journal and Senate records show that occasionally they would meet "at the ringing of the bell" or "the regular hour". Non-members o-' the Council were sometimes permitted to address the 15 89323 "bodies. It was customary for the candidates for Sargeant -at -arras to make speeches in the Senate pre- vious to their election by ballot. These practices and peculiar- ities seem to have been no great handicap to this law-making body. In fact, they attended to legisla- tion with much despatch. Often bills passed both Houses and were signed by the Chief on the same day. Statesmansh ip A Life C areer These Indians had much civic pride and ability and enjoyed the responsibility and participation in the great science of politics and government. The Choctaw system even exceeded the present American system in that the elected Chief, who had served the constitutional limit as the chief executive, was not put on the shelf when his tern expired. Usually he was elected to either the upper or lower House, and often remained in politics the rest of his life. Thus the nation would continue to benefit by the continued use of his knowledge and experience. In this Choctaw Valhalla we may find a counterpart for almost every great American and condition. Wilson Jones, who , it is claimed, could not speak the English lan- guage, rose from poverty to be probab- ly the nation's wealthiest citizen. Without the aid of formal education, through strength of character and industry, Jones attained the cove- ted position of Chief. The nation produced many orators but Green Mc- Curtain, the last elected Chief under the old regime, was the William Jennings Sryan of the Choctaws, the Indian Demosthenes. Coleman Cole ranks with the immortal Lincoln be- cause of his unlettered, hard-headed common sense. The patriot, warrior, Chief, Lieutenant-Colonel Jackson Mc Cur tain, like General U. S. Grant, after a distinguished military record rose to be the chief executive of his nation. As a counterpart for that idealist, statesman and scholar, Woodrow Wilson, the Choctaws have their sainted Dr. Allen Wright, pro- fessorial in appearance and constant in racial fidelity. He was a the- ologian, minister plenipotentiary, statesman, scholar and Chief. His inaugural addresses and messages to the Choctaw General Council are masterpieces in conception, under- standing and application of politi- cal and economic philosophy to the needs of his day and nation. His literary form is superb, and Ms state papers are ur .xcelled by those of the Presidents of the United States. Records Of Government al P rogress It is by a careful and intel- ligent study of the constitutions and enactments of the General Coun- cil of the Choctaw Nation, beginning east of the Mississippi river and continuing down to the abolition, that we are able to note the real prog- ress in civil and social matters. 16 89323 The laws were compiled and published three times from 1834-19S3, both in English and Choctaw, and are known as the Fulsom, Standi ey and Durant codes. These legal accomplishments and some literary legacies of the Choctaw government and people, such as catechisms, translation of Holy Writ, spelling books, grammars, readers, hymn books, definers or dictionaries, inaugural addresses and proclamations of the Chiefs will excite the wonder and admira- tion of all rational and impartial minds. To some people these things, may constitute merely a group of souvenirs or mementos but they are not trifling souvenirs of sentimenh- al worth only; they are monuments to Indian ingenuity along the road of progress in self-government. R ebirth Under T To reflect on the; white man's past historical attempts at self- control; the numerous short-lived constitutions of the Latin American countries, the unsatisfactory pa- per constitutional productions of that celebrated Frenchman Si eyes, the free distribution of -unstable republics by Napoleon, and the in- ability of the old established cul- tural nations of present day Europe to maintain constitutional democracies, causes an Indian ob- server to wonder if the Choctaw Re- public was not, after all, a com- paratively sound essay at self-con- trol both in extent and duration. So after hastily reviewing the Whe e 1 er - Ifo wa r d Bill. three quarters of a century that this tribe of Indians maintained and enjoyed a parliamentary form of self- government, and noting the steady ec- onomic, intellectual and social progress they made as a result of op- portunity and responsibility being wide open to them, I cannot but have the most ardent racial expectations and optimistically vision a progres- sive future for those Indians - that silent, modest and reserved people - that shall serve partially to regu- late and control their local affairs and bend them to meet modern circum- stances as provided in the ep- ochal Wheeler- Howard Sill. 17 89323 THE WISDOM 21 A FORMER P RESIDENT The following letter, hitherto unpublished, was sent by Thomas Jefferson to tne Deputies of the Cherokee Nation in 1808. It deals with a subject which is still "being dealt with in Indian affairs - the long-deferred hope of self-government: My Children Deputies of the Cherokee Upper Towns. I have maturely considered the speeches you have deliv- ered me and will now give you answers to the several matters they contain. You inform me of your anxious desires to engage in the industrious pursuits of agriculture & civilized life, that find- ing it impracticable to induce the nation at large to join in this, you wish a line of separation to "be established between the Upper and Lower towns so as to include all the waters of the Hiwassee in your part, and that having thus contracted your so- ciety within narrower limits, you propose within these to begin the establishment of fixed laws & of regalar government; you say that the lower towns are satisfied with the division you propose; & on these several matters you ask my advice & aid. With respect to the line of division between yourselves and the lower towns it must rest on the joint consent of both parties. The one you propose appears moderate, reasonable and well defined. We are willing to recognize these on each side of that line as distinct societies and if our aid should be necessary to mark it more plainly than nature has done you shall have it. I 18 89323 think with you that on this reduced scale it will "be more easy for you to introduce the regular administration of laws. In proceeding to the establishment of laws you wish to adopt them from ours, and such only for the present as suit your present condition: chiefly indeed those for the punishment of crimes and the protection of property. Bat who is to determine which of our laws suit your condition and shall be in force with you? - all of you being equally free no one has a right to say what shall be law for the others. Our way is to put these ques- tions to the vote and to consider that as law for which the ma- jority votes. The fool has as great a right to express his o~ pinion by vote as the wise, because he is equally free and equally master of himself. But as it would be inconvenient for all your men to meet in one place, would it not be better for every town to do as we do, that is to say, chuse by the vote of the majority of the town and of the country people nearer to that than to any other town, one, two, three or more, according to the size of the Town, of those whom each voter thinks the wisest and honest- est men of their pla.cc, and let these meet together and agree which of our laws suit them. But these men know nothing of our laws. How then can they know which to adopt. Let them associate in t\v.j.v '.oa-.eil our beloved man living with them, Col, Meigs, I and ne will tell them what our law is on any point they desire. He will inform them also of our methods of doing business in our 19 '. ' 09323 councils so as to preserve order and to obtain the vote of every member fairly. This council can make a law for giving to every head of a family a separate parcel of. land, Which when he has built upon and improved, it shall belong to him and his descend- ants forever and which the nation itself shall have no right to sell from under his feet. They will determine too what • punishment shall be inflicted for every crime. In our states generally we punish murder only by death end all other crimes by solitary confinement in a prison. But when you shall have adopted laws who are to execute them? Perhaps it may be best to -permit every town and the set- tlers in its neighborhood attached to it, to select some of their best men, by a majority of its voters to be Judges in all differ- ences, and to execute the law according to their own judgment. Your council of representatives will decide on this or such other mode as may best suit you. I suggest these things my children, for the considera- tion of the upper towns of your nation, to be decided on as they think best, and I sincerely wish you may succeed in your laudable endeavours to Save the remains of your nation by adopting indus- trious occupations and a government of regular law. In this you may always voly on the counsel and assistance of the Government of the U. S. - deliver these words to your poor- la in my na:io and assure them of my friendship. ( Signed) Jany. 9, 1808. (9) Th. Jefferson 20 89323 INDIAN SCHOOL MORALS BY AN INDIAN ARTIST The picture on the following page is one of three panels done "by Waano G-ano , Indian artist living in California. The panels were executed for the dining room at the Sherman In- stitute at Riverside and were unveiled on last Alumni Day. Mr. Gano says in explaining his murals; "The interpretative panels which accompany the murals, will in all probability give to Mr. Collier sufficient explana- tion of the thought which I have attempted to weave into the murals. One or two other things might be noted also. In these paintings I have tried to use the tonal qualities of the white man together with the symbolism of the Indian, much the same as an Indian friend of mine - a musician - successfully adapted the songs of his people to the use of his Indian orchestra. This is especially true of the sun and rainbow. Here I have tried to create the effect of the sun through all of its many transitions, from sunrise to sunset. In the legends and myths of the lake people (Chippewas) I have heard the legend of the spirit flowers which form the rainbow bridge over which the spirit of the Indian passes on his way to the eternal world of harmony or so-called Happy Hunting Ground; thus the elaboration upon the rainbow - that it might have additional importance beyond that which is imparted 21 89323 to it, here in the Southwest. "The idea of the geometrical figures was inspired "by the various geometrical designs found on old pieces of wampum, "basketry, pottery, head and quill work and on blankets of native craftsmanship." The panel shown on the opposite page is called Invocation. The other two panels are called Protection and Ambition. The first shows an Indian in the act of shooting an arrow. The second shows the flight of an arrow, with a warrior being carried on the weapon. The interpretative panels to which Mr. C-ano refers are explanations of the drawings, done in letters designed in harmony with the paintings. $ $ * ♦ $ * sfe $ H« $ * • :|e $ * The Cover Design. The cover design of this issue of INDIANS AT WEK wa.s sent the office by Louis Spear, Indian artist at tho Santa Fe School. 23 89523 lvBWS MOM. THE AIITK30P0I0GY COURSE AT SAHTA PE An account of Dr. Ruth Underbill's course in anthropology for Indian workers at the Santa Pe Indian School appears in the Santr: Pe Hew Mexican as follows: "A number of special lectures have been given during the course in anthropology which is being held this summer at the U. S. Indian school for university credit. Visiting professors and others have spoken on the particular topics of anthropology which, hold their interest. Those who have given one lecture each at this summer school are: "Dr. Sylvanus Griswold Morley of Carnegie Institute, who gave a resume of the growth of culture in America since its very "beginnings and the influence of corn on the lives of the first residents of America, the Indians. Dr. Morley' s talk was brillant and entertaining and was highly appreciated by instruct- ors and students at the school. "Dr. P. 3. D. Aborle, M. D. , of Yale University who spoke on "Health Problems Among the Pueblos." "Dr. E. P. Castetter of the University of Hew Mexico lectured on "Ethno-lHology , " the study of the plant? and animals used by the Indians for medicines, dyes, food and other things. Dr. L. P. Tireman, head of elementary education at the University of Hew I.iexico and head of the San Jose training school, ? jtured on the bilingual question not only among the 24 89323 Anglos and Spanish "but among the Indians and Spanish of New Mex- ico. Dr. Tireman studied this question for many years not only here "but also in Europe with the hope of its practical applica- tion in his work in Hew Mexico. "Dr. Morris Opler, Ph. D. , University of Chicago, told of the ethnological research which is being carried on ex- tensively among the Apaches of New Mexico, which include the Mescaleros, Jicarillas and Chirachuas. "Further special lectures will he included in the course which in continuing each morning at the school under the direction of Dr. Ruth M. tfiiderhill of New York." The New Mexican also reports that more than seventy students are to.kirg Dr. Underhill ' s course. The faculty includes Miss Mabel Morrow, teacher of arts and crafts at Santa Fe School, and Miss Dorothy Dunn, teacher of art at Santa Fe. 25 89323 EXTENSION OF THE NAVAJO RESERVATION In the past, various means have "been attempted toward acquiring additional land for the Navajo Indians. One of the means which was put into effect subsequent to 1911 was the allot- ting of 160 acres of public domain to qualified Navajo s living off the reservation. Approximately 6,000 of these allotments were ma.de and approved, stretching from well up into the Blanco Canyon country north of Pue"blo Bonito in San Juan County, thence south and westward of the existing reservation into Apache County, Arizona. A number of Indian homesteads on the public domain were also made. The making of these allotments and homesteads, while affording some relief to the Indians, did not solve the situation for the reason that it created continuous conflict with white homesteaders and white stockmen who had "been accustomed to using the public range; .also, the fact that Federal or tribal funds could not be used to develop water on the allotments retarded solution of the matter. During 1918 Congress enacted legislation prohibiting the enlargement of any Indian reservation in Arizona and New Mexico from the public domain, except with the consent of Congress. This legislation added almost insurmountable obstacles to the then diffi- cult situation, for the reason that it precluded withdrawing any public domain for permanent addition to the reservation by executive order. During 1921 Congress passed exchange legislation, effective in three counties in New Mexico contiguous to the reservation, which had for its aim the exchange of Indian and white-owned land to the end that the interest of each would be blocked out in solid contigu- ous areas. This was desirable for the reason that the Indian allot- ments referred to above were interspersed with lands in private owner- ship originally the property of the Santa Fe Pacific Railroad Company, which had been granted each alternate section of public land for a distance of 20 miles on each side of its right of way, plus an additional 10-mile indemnity strip. It was not until recent years that advantage was taken by the Railroad Company and others to effect exchanges and consolidations under this act. During the years 1927 and 1928 an attempt was made to con- tinue making allotments to Navajo Indians on the public domain. A number were made and approved, but through local, political pressure the work was soon dropped. The need of the Indians for additional land, however, continued to grow more acute, and during 1931 a study was made in the field as to what our- objective should be, and certain definite conclusions were reached. These conclusions were to the effect that in lieu of mailing allotments, certain new exterior boundary lines should be established covering into the reservation 26 89323 as tribal land all privately-owned and all public land within the extended lines. Three progressive steps to this end were neces- sary, the first of which was the addition to the reservation of the Palate strip in Utah consisting of approximately 500,000 acres. Secondly, the extension of the reservation in Arizona involving approximately 1,000,000 acres. Thirdly, the extension of the res- ervation in New Mexico, for the purpose of covering in the allot- ments made to individual Indians, together with the exchanges made under the 1921 Act and the purchases made with the Navajo tribal funds. To date, two of the steps have been accomplished by act of Congress. Namely, the extension of the boundary in Utah and Arizona, leaving for final action the extension in New Mexico. The extension of the boundary in Arizona was accom- plished during the past session of Congress, as embodied in the Act of June 14, 1934 (Pub. 352). This act, among other things, authorizes exchanges of privately-owned lands with the new boundaries defined therein to the end that the large private owners will relinquish their holdings within the extended line to the Indians and make lieu selections from the available public land outside of the new boundary line; also, certain privately- owned lands will be purchased for the Indians. Regulations governing exchanges under Section 2 of the Act have been promulgated, and will be put into effect shortly; and it is anticipated that within the next four months, at the most, tribal title to all lands within the extended aria in Arizona will be complete. As to the third step, namely, the New Mexico boundary ex- tension, a bill for that purpose was passed by the Senate during the last session of Congress and was very close to consideration by the House when that body adjourned. It is confidently expected that the New Mexico boundary extension will be approved by the next session of Congress. It has received the endorsement of the local white citizens except a very small minority group. Luring a conference had with the State Land Commissioner at Santa Fe during the early part of this month, it was indicated by him that he was in favor of and would support the Navajo -New Mexico boundary extension bill. These land extensions to the Navajo s do not solve the prob- lem but merely will help alleviate an acute situation. Constant thought must be given to solving the matter as it is a foregone con- clusion that no additional lands can be obtained for these Indians in the three States above mentioned upon completion of the legislative purchase exchange program set out above. J. M. Stewart, Chief, Land Division. 27 89323 C0MM5BT F ROM THE FISLP gfi Cli^ULM L3TT3R 350gU3R 3011 The following arc some of the comments which have "been received from tho field on the circular of -July 14, relating to the coordination of Indian Office servicer,. "Your circular letter I T o. 503.1, dated July 14, setting forth a statement of new Indian Service policies, has been re- ceived. "I want you to know that I honestly and truly appreciate the action that you have taken as I believe that it will |iVe the local administrators the authority, confidence, and "backing they have needed from the Commissioner's Office for some time. "This is in line with the recommendations made "by the Superintendents at the Social Workers » "Conference held in Kansas City recently. "You have also set out very clearly the duties and re-^ sponsibilitios of ail concerned which will eliminate friction and bring about more harmony in building programs that will meet tho needs of each Indian jurisdiction, which is satisfactory to the Indians." P. W. Daniel son, Superintendent, Pawnee Agency. "We consider this letter one of the most important ever received in the field and we are going to treat it accordingly. The third and fourth paragraphs on page one under "Foreword" con- tain some of the most pertinent and important points that it nas been my privilege to read in my long experience in the Indian Service, and I assure you that if these can be carried out ^ as set forth they will go a long way toward facilitating cooperation be- tween the central and the field offices and clear up many things which have been heretofore often misunderstood. "We are glad to have this circular and conies will be furnished to the various departments of this jurisdiction, as well as to the Councils of the different tribes; and I look for much improvement all along the line in Indian affairs due to the promulgation of these policies." 2. G. Court right, S^ecjhal Agent IS Qz-Lz&.t Winnebago Agency . "This is to acknowledge receipt of Circular No. 3611, setting up the new Indian Service policies, and to submit that I personally, as a Superintendent, am fully in accord with the pur- port thereof. 33 39323 11 1 have had one croup meeting in which the Circular was discussed in its various aspects. Heads oi departments were im- pressed with the added responsibility, or, perhaps I should say, with the idea that they are to he made to assume the responsibility of their position; that there are to he no alibis; that there must be a cordial cooperation and unrestrained exercise of professional ability, and an unhampered field of operation and an opportunity for Field and Agency specialists to map out their own program on their own initiative, and that they mast stand or fall with or without the Superintendent , on their judgment and on the efficiency with which they carry out their particular job." W. 3P. Di ckens , Sup 3 r i n t e n de nt , Cheyenne Agency. The following letter has also been received from a man keenly concerned in Indian affairs, but not officially connected with the Indian Service: "I have read your Circular Letter Ho. 3011 dated July 14, 1934, with the keenest of interest. I congratulate you most heartily upon this very clear and perfectly fair stat '.it of ad- ministrative and service functions and relations both in YTashing- ton and the field. It has been received most favorably by the field men who have read it and mentioned it to mo. 11 29 89323 INDIAN ■JAI'UR&IST Over in the Cherokee hills i? a Cherokee fullblood woman, a Tulsa University graduate, who has, at least for herself, solved the prob- lem of supplementing the farm income without any initial outlay of funds. Her scheme is so unique and yet so practical that it is well worth pass- ing on to others, for it can easily be adapted to other regions. Two D o£s and S ome 3u£ia^ Mrs. Anna Gilliland' s resources for her work are two dogs, some bur- lap and a few farm tools. She is a woman who thinks and acts upon her thoughts. Realizing that the wild growth of her hills was rapidly disappearing, she hit upon the plan some years ago of conserving the vines, shrubs and flowers, by going out after specimens and, after ac- quainting herself with their likes and dislikes as to shade, soil and water supply, bringing them in and planting them in suitable suots in her yard. The dogs are used to spot the snakes that infest the hills, and are her sole protection on the long hikes she makes to find the choicest plants; digging them out of the ground she wraps their roots in the burlap, thus not allowing the roots to dry before they are trans- planted. Azalea, redbud, dogwood, wild syringa, wahoo (first cousin to bit- tersweet) , bittersweet, shooting stars, columbine, delicate iris so like an orchid, these are some of the beauties she brings in. She is serving her State in caring for and preserving its wild growth- but there is a financial side to this work, for Mrs. Gilliland fills orders for these plants. She is very conscientious; plants sent by mail or delivered in person are moist, well packed and guaran- teed to live. If they are not so, she replaces them. She places her price on them - it takes work to go out in those hills and dig up a bittersweet plant. However, Mrs. Gilliland, with her deliveries of plants, adds all necessary in- structions as to location, shade, water, and so forth. Once a customer, always a cus- tomer seems to be a fact in her case, for people become fascinated with her products - wood violets and those lovely things that can- not be had from nurseries. With a fascinating vocation, Mrs. Gilliland has combined financial success. 30 89323 M IRRIGATION PROJEC T EXCLUSIVELY FOR IITDIAh'S By A. L. Wathen Director of Irrigation, Indian Service The Walker River irrigation project, at present under construction, will benefit an all-Indian population. Unlike certain other Indian Service projects, it will not serve a mixed grouping of the two races, hut will he for a population of Indians alone. An account of the undertaking follows. The Land and The People The Walker River project on the Walker River Reservation is lo- cated in townships 12 to 15 north, ranges 26 to 29 east, Mount Diablo Meridian, Mineral County, ITevada* It comprises an area of approxi- mately 10,280 acres of river bottom lands, 10,060 acres of which have been allotted to the Faiute Indians in twenty-acre irrigable allotments. The land lies along both sides of the Walker River and varies in width from one-half to four miles, extending in a northwesterly di- rection from Walker Lake for a dis- tance of approximately twenty-four miles up the Walker River. The soil varies in character from a fine river silt, silty and clay loams, to sandy loams and coarse sands. Contrary to the opinion of irrigation engineers in the early reports on the project, the soil has proven very fertile, and, with ample water for irrigation, pro- duces excellent crops of potatoes, corn and alfalfa. The Indians of this reservation exhibit considerable inclination toward farming, although agricul- ture on this reservation has always been carried on under serious handi- caps. The variable character of the river flow from heavy floods in June to practically nothing during July and August, in some years, has made diversion difficult and costly, and farming hazardous in the late sum- mer because of insufficient water. The attitude and patience of the Indians on this reservation are to be commended. They have shown great forbearance in attempting to cultivate their lands under the variable and uncertain water sup- ply conditions of the past. The location and favorable markets for farm produce combined with soil fertility and climatic conditions, make it possible under normal agri- cultural conditions to realize sub- stantial profits from irrigated farming. These Indians have demon- 31 89323 strated their ability in this in- dustry, and with an adequate water The F.7A Grant And The need for storage to hold flood waters for use during the lat- ter part of the irrigation season was recognized for o. number of years, increasingly so, as the ir- rigable area became more widely utilized. The necessary funds, however, were not made available until the Public Works Administra- tion acted favorably upon our application for $130,000 with which the urgently needed storage dam and reservoir could be constructed at one of the several available sites. Subsequent engineering investiga- tions, after the funds had been made available for expenditure, indicated supply guaranteed will undoubtedly make rapid progress toward the full development of the project. the Presen t Work that the site tentatively selected (and upon which was based the esti- mate of funds for the construction of the dam) was not feasible be- cause of insecure foundation con- ditions. The dam site finally se- lected is known as the Weber site. A study of the available reports indicated that a reservoir could be formed at this site, having an estimated capacity of 10,000 acre feet, by the construction of a' dam in the Walker River approxi- mately 10 miles northwest of Schurz, Nevada. It is estimated that the project as now located and with the increased storage capacity will cost an additional $25,000 or a total of $155,000. ftfcmth By Month Construction of the Weber Stor- age P.e servo ir was commenced on Sep- tember 21, with a crew of 54 men, 42 of whom were Indians. The dam is of the rolled filled type with a diversion tunnel and emergency spillway. Operations were centered on excavation of the north abutment of the cutoff wall where it was found necessary to remove a compos- ite of river sand sifted with quick- sand, replacing it with clay. Seep- age water ^resented quite a serious problem and it was necessary to op- erate centrifugal pumps twenty-f our hours a day as well as the driving of sheet piling to combat this feature. Weather during the month of January was exceedingly mild with not a single severe storm to retard the work. Lack, of proper equipment, however, did impede progress to a certain extent during January but there has since been received and placed in operation a one-half yard cubic capacity dragline and shovel excavator. During January it was necessary to suspend operations on the outlet tunnel so that addition- al men would be available for the construction of a diversion chan- nel along the north abutment of the cut-off wall where considerable dif- ficulty had been experienced in a sealing off seepage waters. 32 89323 A small coffer darn, constructed with corrugated metal end wood sheet piling, which was jetted and forced to the depth of hardpan* was "built along the south end of the ex- cavation for the cut-off wall. This proved to he an effective method A. Placing Steel For Intake Works At The Vfeber Dam for sealing off this water. Excess water was expelled with the centri- fugal pumps. This excavation was backfilled with an approximately fifty per cent clay and gravel fill to the desired elevation of the di- version channel, which crosses at right angles with this portion of the cut-off wall. The fill was placed in six-inch layers and com- pacted with the aid of a tractor and a sheep sfoot roller, together with hand operated tamping bars. As soon as this portion of the abutment was completed, the diver- B. Intake Works - Weber Dam sion channel was blanketed with a water tight material, for fifty feet on each side of the cut-off wall. The river was then diverted from its natural course through the channel. During February weather condi- tions continued mild and favorable 33 89323 for construction operations. Prog- ress on the work, however, was considerably slowed up, as foe to the extremely rnild weather condi- tions the Indian farmers employed on thp work were encouraged to take time off for their spring plowing miles long -was constructed to short- en the hauling distance for freight and supplies by sixteen miles. A water tank with an approximate 5,000 gallon capacity was placed on a twenty foot tower And connections made to a supply well and centrif- C. The downstream T and preparation of land for seeding of grain. However, the cut-off wall adjoining the north abutment, the diversion channel and coffer dam were completed, after which opera- tions were resumed on the outlet tunnel and the first G5 feet com- pleted. At this point a fault zone was encountered - the material in this area proved to be somewhat dangerous for underground work, and inasmuch as the over burden was com- paratively light the excavation of the remaining portion was completed with a dragline in an open cut. A road approximately four The Stat us To date favorable progress has e Of The Weber Dam ugal pump. The tank is centrally located and will supply wa.ter for various purposes. Noticeable progress was made on the project during the first two weeks of March due to th» acquisition of another one-half cubic yard drag- line. Operations were concentrated on the cutlet tunnel which has been completed. It has a total length of 133 feet, a diameter of six feet and a concrete lining with a minimum thickness of ten inches and a total capacity of 890 cubic feet of water per second. At pr c sent been made on the Weber Dam, thr 34 89323 chief features of work being the construction of the gate house structure and intake, works, and the . placing of embankment in the main dam. Setting of all four gates lias been completed, and the water was diverted through the tunnel on July 17, 1934. Photo (A) shows steel being placed for intake, while photo (B) shows completed intake works carrying the diverted river flow, and partially completed gate house structure. The diversion trench, which has been in use since last January, has been backfilled to the present elevation of embank- ment , Photo (C) shows a portion of the riprap on the downstream toe across the former river channel. With the river now being di- verted through the tunnel, the embankment has been carried across the entire width of the former river channel to an elevation of 4188, which makes it possible to store approximately one thousand acre feet of water, which is now being released from upstream reser- voirs to give relief to the farmers in the Walker River area. This water will be released in small quantities from the reservoir to aid all the farmers in saving as much of their crops as possible. Indians Now At Work On July 9, 1934, two six-hour shifts were put into operation, and on July 23, 1934, a third shift was started in order to increase the daily yardage being placed in the embankment. With the increase in labor, approximately fifteen hundred cubic yards are being placed daily for the embankment . The expend! tiires to July 30, 1934 were as follows; Labor $36,034.22 Purchases 29,716.43 Miscellaneous Expense 2,5 64,93 Total Disbursements $58,315.58 Of that amount expended for labor, the Indians had been paid $25,416 for 8500 men days of labor. The whites had. been paid $10,618.22 for 3000 man days of labor. There are now approximately seventy-five Indians employed on this project. 35 89323 SUPERFICIAL NOTES Oil SO! 3 IEOW PEOJE August 1, Flying east of Phoenix about six in the morning. I am of the opinion that colored post cards and the National Geo- graphic Magazine should "be ex- pressed. The country looks too like those pictures. One does not come out here to see thorn. In Globe at six o'clock in the evening. It rains. I go into a drug store for orange juice and the Sky is clear. I drink the orange juice and by that time the curbing has disappeared. There is nothing but rain in the world. The world is wrapped in rain, strangling twisted sheets of rain. It be- sieges the drug store and comes in under the sill and around the win- dows. Ten minutes and the sun is shining. I take a car for San Carlos, Three miles out of Globe the desert is dusty, distracted with a blowing dust, as if no rain had ever fallen. Certainly none has fallen here. Then the dry bed of a wash puts on a show. A wall of water races down it. On its forefront it carries high and heaving - dead bodies of cattle, killed that morning by their owners, killed to save them from the drought. I nave heard of drought in Washington. I meet it now. For three hours I wait for the water to go by. A curious experi- ence, to an Easterner, waiting for a stream to go by, as if it were a procession. Streams do not "go by" in the East. They are part of the .AND INDIANS AT WORK BY THE EDITOR country there, fixed in the land- scape forever. When finally we have crossed and proceeded fifteen miles, we come to the bed of this same wash a second time. Here it is perfectly dry. I am told that the water has all run into the ground. I believe it. I find it easier to believe than to reason. August 2. At Sail Carlos A- gency office, listening to discus- sions between Indians and Superin- tendent as to how to save the cat- tle from the drought. In the afternoon I visit Mrs* Sippi , a heroine of mine since the INDIANS AT WORN of November 1, 1933. She is at her little farmhouse near the Agency, just come back from her round of visits to IECW camps, where she instructs the women in home betterment and child care. Her car is parked in the farm- yard; her shotgun is still on the front seat. She is resting or. a bench under the tree. A great woman, this -benign, calm, detachedly observant. I prefer not to introduce myself, but point to one of the several dogs. "Cash?" I say, remembering him from his picture i n the Washington Office. Mrs. Sippi falls into my mood. She does not ask me who I am. She does not ask me anything. "Sit down", she says, dusting me a chair. I -.it down. (A lesson for a hostess. ) How fine an intermingling of the old and new. Mrs. Sippi, who as a cnold was with Geronimo's 36 89323 band, plainly looks toward ths fu- ture of her people. "I teach all the women," she says in her diffi- cult English, "make things nice - clean - pretty. 11 The English does not carry the depth of her meaning. What sne tells me is that she tears, insofar as she can, the life of all her wo- men in her mind, in her heart, on Mrs. Sippi smiles indulgently. "Maybe not so clean," she murmurs. I feel somehow rebuked* Balance is not easy to keep when one is out of one's own country. August 3. Driving over the reservation with Forest Supervisor Allen and IECW Supervisor Cornwall on the way to see IECW projects and camps. I learn something about Indian Blacksmith And Smithy In The Woods, Where They Made Telephone Poles Into Pipe Eor Spring Development. IECW Project, San Carlos her shoulders. She will lift them up to progress, not just lead them, but lift them. I look at her powerful, peaceful face. It is turned toward tho sun. Like many powerful heads, hers could be cruel, if Mrs. Sippi were not so good. A few nights before she danced at tho rain dance. Now she says, "Maybe they get to like new ways, new house, new dress. In every camp I talk to women that are young. Maybe they learn — ". I say, "But the old dress is so pretty." trails in the Indian country: When road building began hereabouts it was necessary to bring white sur- veyors in to locate the routes. "Didn't the Indians know the best ways around?" It seems that they did not. The game had been destroyed in the back country. There was nothing that they could live by there. They were forced to depend on the Agency, so, very practically, they moved down to its neighborhood. The old men who knew the country 37 39323 died. The young generation had no need to learn it. How with the growth of cattle industry and the improvement of the range, the people are moving out again. Hence the value of the IECW road projects - sociological, economic, historic . This ISSGf rood is good. It is not so wide as a "boulevard nor so graded as a drive, bat plainly it will suffice. It is hard and driveable. We go worming down in- to canons and climbing straight up rocky slopes, and the road remains faithful. Mr. Allen who built it, using all-Indian crews, tells me a- bout grades, fills, costs and so on ( which I do not understand) . The rain has not helped the forage. It ran away too fast. But there is hope - we cross a ridge and look down at Number 15 Reservoir. It has been dry since it wo. s built. Now, after the first considerable rain, it has four feet of water in it. Water'. I have been so converted, im- perceptibly, to this topsy-turvy country, that I feet it my person- al responsibility to have water in all reservoirs. Mr. Allen in- spects the dam. It holds. We drive on to Number 18. There is water in it too. Lunch at an IEC1 camo-vi llage - the village described by Mr. Corn- wall in the August 1 INDIANS AT WORK, It is so clean and orderly that, with the leafy brush shelters, there is something almost dainty about i t . I learn now the penalty of my race, with its long history of wrong toward the Indian. These Apache people are polite to me, on- ly polite, and that a distrustful courtesy. I realize that no imme- diate effect of personality or man- ner could possibly make them like me. They do not like me. Only long acquaintance co\ild accomplish that. With Mr. Allen and Mr. Corn- wall, whom they have known over a long period, there is a indefinable difference in feeling. For a year I have been in the Washington In- dian Office. I realize now how far Washington is from "Indian Country" We go on to another camp, pass ing a sweat bath on the way . Here there is an example of IECW re sourcefulness that should be pub- lished. In a blacksmith shop set up in the woods an Indian smith is making pipe for spring development. He is making it from old iron tel- ephone poles - part of a line e- rected by United States troops years ago. Supervisor Allen has had his IECW crews salvage these poles, cut them and thread them. They go to springs now - to save the precious water. It has been a big job. I think about it, and somehow, Washington seems even far- ther away. August 5. With Superintendent Kitch, Mr. Allen and Mr. Cornwall to see Juniper Tank, an IECW reser- voir that has held water since its completion last year. With three years, says Superintendent Kitch and appropriations such as have been available since IECW began, the reservation can be made drought proof. In the afternoor to Turkey 33 89323 Tanks to see what was once a "bog.. Mr. Allen tells me ab^ut it. "We. had to go eighteen feet to find water," he says. "Fourteen feet down we found the bones of cattle that had mired there. Now - look. » I look. Clear water is run- ning into a covered basin from cess of excavation by the University of Arizona. It is built against the face of a red clay bank, and the sim, from the west, shines directly on it. Mr. Cornwall points out the delicate patterning of the masonry walls - a layer of thick stone, finely matched, a layer of clay and then a layer of thin stones, all chosen with obvious care for sym- metry and color. A dozen or more The IECW Spring That Was Once A Bog, San Carlo: which human beings can drink. It runs, too, into a huge tank for the cattle* This tank has a barbed wire guard to keep the animals from stepping into it. The water is beautiful, clear and cold. "Four hundred and eighty gal- lons a day, * says Mr. Allen, knock- ing out his pipe. I cannot think of anything to say, so 1 ask him if he can spare a drink of water. We go on to Whiteriver, stop- ping, just about sundown, to look : at a prehistoric town now in pro- rooms have been uncovered. Every- where there are pieces of pottery - red and tan, black and white. I examine the shards and see the old- new designs, the traditional patterns Truly Indian country, when even the soil is full of their claims to it« In a bare field at San Carlos, I ■ had picked up the same sort of pieces August 6. Up into the Fort Apache Indian Resei-vation forests. Heavens, how beautiful these pine ; woods are. Here it is green. Here there has been no drought. Here there are streams with water in them and some springs, at least, that do not have to be developed. 39 89323 Here, at the IECW camp where we lunch, is a spring that is too idyllic. It "bubbles up in a bower of wild flowers. It runs away through rich grass in a winding rill, diamond clear and silent i It is too perfect, like an over- ardent painting of still life. I Truck Trail Work, Port Apache am embarrassed, but Mr. Cornwall saves the day with the world's worst pun to date, ,r The flowers that bloom in the spring," he re- marks, with terrible pride. Let him deny it. This spring, with all its cleanliness, with its unspoiled wealth of grass and flowers, is still used, and used very practi- cally. It serves a campground for Indian cowboys working in the roundups. The ground adjoins it. It has recently been in use, but it too is beautifully clean. There is no trash, no litter, . And there are no signs* either, requesting campers not to leave trash or lit- ter. A rebuke to white picnickers! At the IECW camp where we eat lunch I get a professional thrill. The men are away at work, a hot lunch has been sent to them. Their tents are empty. Somewhat timidly we look inside and - on two cots are copies of INDIANS AT WORK. For my own part, if I lived in these for- ests, I doubt if I would bother to read anything. We go along an IECW trail under construction. We constantly meet Indian crews - jackhammer men, pow- der men, masons, laborers. Some of these men are Apaches, some Pimas. Group Foreman Tschantz rides with us and explains the niceties of each job. He shows me the work of one Indian boy whom he commends espe- cially. This is a culvert. The boy was trained in an Indian school, I know nothing of culverts, but I can feel purpose, despatch and intelligence in this job. How unfortunate that I am not a road engineer'* How unfortunate, for that matter, that I am not a teacher, a physician, a property administrator, a forester, a psy- sciatrist, a financial expert, an agriculturalist and some more things. I wonder if in any gov- ernment bureau there are to be found more phases of the New Deal, as it has come to be so conven- iently called, than in the Indian Service, where there are opportun- ities for rehabilitation along so many lines - human and property. That was an excellent culvert. 40 89323. V'e go on to Big Springs Family Camp v/here we find, only women and children. A pretty girl is filling her olla at the spring. She con- sents to "be our guide and "brings us into camp. She takes us to the wickiup home of Mrs. Rustin, where we meet three mothers. Ea.cn mother has a baby, e.n immeasurably grave, oriental-seemin & baby, one in arms asleep, a seconu. laced up in the Apache cradle and the third in its bath in a backet, but still grave and dignified - certainly a test of urbanity.. I try to learn the Apache word for cradle, but fail. Mrs. Baha, our glide, consents to let us take her picture. We go on - more I EC 1 .? road work, more Indian crews. A cat- erpillar is pulling a tree over. A tall Indian sts.nds, apart, lock- ing on. His round face is impass- ive. 'The tree rocks, the cater- pillar scuffles about and at last the tree falls. The radian throws out his hands and laughs. He looks like an Aztec carving. Later I an introduced to him - Chief Baha, Chief of the Apaches. August 7. With Forester Moffat, Mr. Cornwall and Mr. Larson to Odart Camp, through meadows of wild flowers, past a clear black lake ma.de by beavers. Mr. Moffat tells me that these little animals, knowing that drought wa.s coming, had widened their structure and had. gone upstream and raised two more dans. They too are saving water. Lunch at Odart Camp, an order- ly tent-village of single men, A- paches and Pimas. They have horse- shoe and volley ball courts. I doubt somehow that they spend much time reading 1 INDIANS AT WORK. On to the Maverick Lookout where we climb the eighty-foot IECW steel tower. Here we have a Apache Workman, 67 Years Old, Ft. Apache view - and what a Paradise this Apache land isl Then to Bonito Creek, to an- other IECW road camp, just in time for dinner. And then, back toward the Agency, just in time for our truck to bo washed away in the Seven Mile Canon. These cloud- bursts 1 So delightfully casual. Mr. Cornwall and Mr. Larson jump to safety. From the coupe on the other bank Mr. Moffat and I watch the truck turn over and bump downstream. This canon is only 41 89323 a receptacle for the emptying heavens. Human beings in it are poor as drowning rats. We are "bounded by our car lights and rain. Then, after a while we hear someone approaching us. It is an Indian, riding his pony, riding without a coat, his little Mrs. Ernma Baha, Ft. Apache boy sticking on behind him. He goes by, turning to follow the creek, not attempting to ford. He does not speak to us; he looks to see who we are; that is all. Suddenly he is back again, like a phantom in our headlights. His face is full of imperative urgency. He points vividly down the creek. "Truck!" he shouts, "In wash! Where mans?" We try to convey to him that we know about the truck - that it is all right. He only repeats his ques- tion, his eyes burning in at us. "Where mane?" This time we make it clear that the men have gotten out - that they are not in danger. He turns his horse at once and vanishes. He is not in- terested new. The men are not in trouble. He does on to his farm, or maybe his camp or wickiup to live out this dreadful night. And two hours later we go on to the Agency. He will not remember us, certainly. But I remember him, phantom-like in our headlights, wet with rain, consumed with brief anx- iety for a fellow traveller, shout- ing, "Where mans?" I talk to Dean Gumming s of Ari- zona University, who is supervising excavations thereabouts. He says something that has long seemed of significance to me - no people have ever reached a social level comparable to that of the Indian without developing a written liter- ature. The Indians alone seem to have felt no need for ink; I think about that. There is something awe- inspiring about self-c oat ainment so profound that it has leaped over the desire to write things down. There have been no Indian scribblers! I cannot understand it. It is the rounding out of the circle, the ac- ceptance of life with such simplic- ity and such sophistication that the two are indistinguishable. 42 89323 ■ FROM IECW W3EK1Y REPORTS. Indians deve lop Sprigs At Walker River . A good siz-ed spring is "being boxed up with cement walls and piped into concrete troths for watering 750 head cattle now in lake pasture. The Indians with group foreman on job btu.lt forms and mixed concrete in wheel barrows and poured into two foot forms. Some difficulty was encountered in getting loads of gravel and sand to place by reason of soft ground. The lake shore is very boggy and hard for stock to get to water. Roy M. Madsen. Out Of The Clouds At Trust on Canon . The much need, and long looked for rains have gotten off to a pretty good start. We had a mighty good rain at camp last Thursday. All of the washes were running to their capacity. It looked as if the bot- tom fell out of every cloud. The rain started about twenty miles from' the camp, and one could see it progress rapidly towards the camp. Within fifteen minutes we were in • the midst of a real rain. However, the rain seemed to miss the tanks that water is needed in at the pres- ent time. But the rain was wel- comed just the same, even though it did soak everyone in the camp and the men out on the job. The men who were working near the camp came in looking like drowned rats. Rot coffee was served by our Indian- cook, Richard Fisher, and quite a time was held by the men talking over the excitement of the rain. The rain seems to be bringing up quite a bit of feed for the cattle. Charles Barn ard. Sports at Uintah and Ouray. This has been a good week for our , S.C.W. baseball team. On Sunday, the fifth, the Indians defeated the C.C.C. boys at the C.C.C. camp, with a score of 22-5; on Thursday, the ninth, the Indians again de- feated the C.C.C. boys, 8-4; and on Friday, the tenth, they won the championship game with My ton on a technical decision of the umpire, the My ton team quitting in the fifth inning, with the score 2-0. These last two games were played before crowds approximately 10,000 at the Uintah Basin Industrial Con- vention at Fort Duchesne. JSharley J. lan ge r . Fighting Ihe Plant Pest at .Fort Yuma . Building contours for the flooding of Johnson grass in the eradication of same. Also dig- ging small infested places. John L. Black. Cooperation At. Hoopa Valley . We are using fresh fruit and vege- tables bought from the Indians of the Valley. John M. Lindly . Drift Fence At. Warm Springs . From the 30th of July to the third of August using 79 man days we com- pleted about 3/8 miles of drift fence which makes total amount fin- ished about 75$. Edward larsen . Precautions At. Flathead . Dur- ing the week the regular camp routine was carried out and work continued on truck trail construction. 43 89323 One fire was reported just a- bove Hot Springs on the 31st. Twenty- five men from this camp an- swered this call and remained on scene of fire returning to camp at 6 a.m. August 1. . . . On account of extreme dry . weather ton men are "being retained in camp to "bo available on instant notice in case of fire.. . Those men sharpen tools, cut wood, or other- - wise work around camp. Our first weekly meeting was held this week for the purpose of discussing publicly any matter that had to do with.- the improvement of camp or other conditions and to take up in open forum any matter that it was felt should be discussed. This opportunity each week for everyone to be heard and to make such suggestions they had to of- fer, as well as the social phase of these meetings, should prove very popular. Ger.rit .Smi th. Pour .teen Hours Withou t Relief At . P.o.cky £o,y's . About 4 a.m. on July 30 a fire was reported to the agency by one of the Indians. The fire was Ideated in Parker Canyon in Section 36. The fire had reached a size of approximately 6 acres and was put under control by the. men available at the agency. Pour IECTT men were left to patrol. In the afternoon about 2 p.m. an exceptionally high wind started up and again the fire was reported out of control. The IPCW men working on. Trail ho. 1 were rushed to the scene of the fire and after con- siderable fighting it was put under control, about 6 p.m. in the even- ing. It burned over approximately 60 acres of grass and brush land. The men from camp were called to the "fire in the evening and spent the night in putting out the re- maining spot fire and watching it „ until morning. The result was that one lays field work was sac- rificed in order to put out this fire. The attitude of the men is exceptionally good toward fire fighting; inasmuch as they did not complain about spending 14 hours on the fire line without relief. Britton C lair . P.ire Fightin g; And. Pun At Co.ly.i lie . The boys have been very busy with fires this last week. 50 of the boys were called to sup- press a fire on the Spokane Reser- vation. They enjoyed the trip but were glad to return to tbBii* Twin Lakes Camp. There was a fire call at Rogers Par. There will be a dance at the Twin Lakes Hall Saturday and a big crowd is expected. The cooks at the Summit Camp have taken up wrestling as a side line. They seem to be very good. The first of the coming week we expect to have the largest por- tion of the men on the Summit Camp, as work on the Gold Mt. road will start. Barney Packard . ' Mounted lire Patrol At Port B»l knap . Due to extreme dry weather we have put on four fire guards who cover the forest area daily on horseback. The patrol work is. greatly facilitated this year by the trails constructed through the mountains last season by the Emergency Conservation workers. One guard reports putting 44 89323 out a dangerous camp fire left "by some careless camper. On their way through the mountains the guards stop and show ail tourists the cor- rect way to put out their fires and warn thera of the danger that can be caused "by their carelessness in this matter. Pre sto n Ring. G rasshoppers S pread jit port .Tot ten . Gras shoppers have spread from idle lands owned "by white people and are so large that they won't take the 'bait we have used. There are many good gardens and. as the grass and fields dry up, these hoppers move to green corn and gardens, so we are centering our work around these places as well as we can. Very hot weather lias slowed up cur road side clearing but the boys are doing very well. Later in the season it will be necessary to go over these roads once more, but we will get most of the weeds before they seed at this time. Report completed is on one time over the project. Report on whole project would be just one half. On the grasshopper work, we have covered practically all the a- rea two times. This leaves about 11$ of the project to be covered once more. T7e have enough arsenic bait to work three days more. More is available as the farmers don't want to use any more. They are not- satisfied with this bait. They waited too long and refused to spread the bait on the egg beds be- fore the hoppers became big enough to spread. Edwin C_. Losby . Gomes J£ Yakima . Camp three played host to both Signal Poak and Camp Pour last weekend. Camp Pour came down and defeated us in a closely contested soft ball game. Signal Peak not only ployed us a game of soft ball but also en- joyed our swimming pool. They had their picnic there and then a number of Camp Three boys challenged them to a game of water head- tag. An ex- cellent outing was had by everyone. Jul ian .Smith . Running Smoo thly At CJiexejme And Arapaho . Work is progressing' very nicely at this camp in spite of the extremely hot and dry weather. Under authority from the Indian Of- fice a sub-foreman has been appoint- ed who has previously been a laborer and leader on conservation work and is experienced in this type of work. ?fe expect to have everything running smoothly and good v/ork done on pro- jects where this work was dropped last March, in order for the men to return to their homes and farm. Due to the drought and extremely hot weather very little benefit was re- ceived from farm work this year. This work is proving to be the only means of many of the Indians on this reservation making a living for their families. D. W. Hamilton . Unki nd Umpire At S outhern lava j o . Our call team got beat last Sunday by Winslow. They are going to play them again. The umpire won the game this time. Our boys had them beat five to nothing up to the sixth inning, then the umpire won. Our ball team went to Phoenix yester- day to play in a tournament. If they have good luck playing ball they will be gone all week. Ben Ear di son. 45 30323 in places where levees empty into the main water course. These cacti serve a dual purpose by retaining more water and allowing it to soak into the ground as well a? reduce erosion to a minimum. - The 100 feet of rip-rap .men- tiened is a water break in the main water course to protect some 300 cactus transplanting? from being damaged by flood waters. Fran]: H. Kiggins , Jr . ********** FIR5 FIGIITIITG FJDIANS The following letter from Carl B. Veal, Forest Supervisor of the Deschutes National Forest, to Pat Gray, Forest Supervisor of the Warm Springs Reservation, speaks volumes in praise of the fire- fighting ability of the Warm Springs Indian boys: "I was very pleased to got Mr. Clark's gratifying report on the well organized crew of Indian boys who helped him on the west ond of the ?ly Creek fire. "He stated that the fine spirit of cooperation and com- plete organization of crews leaves nothing more to be desired of them as a fire fighting organization and that their work and di- recting personnel was equal to that of any crew he had ever wit- nessed on the fire line. "Although this fire was not directly the responsibility of the Deschutes, I want to thank you for the fine cooperation you gave in bringing it under control and to congratulate you on the fire organization you have builded with your Indian boys." 46 They all Realize At Zuni. Building dams with brush and rock. • I'm very glad to say that all of my men now realize how to build the dams with brush and rocks. By work- ing with them in every week I'm do- ing so fine and my men are the same way too. H en ry Hatewa . Cactus Serves Dual P urp o s e At Sells. There has been 300 trans- plantings of cactus (opuntia haevis) / i ?